## ISIS Report 12/09/11## The Z Theory of Everything
A fully referenced version of this paper is posted on ISIS members website and is available for download here. A more extended technical version is also available for download. ## The ultimate ToEElectrical engineer and physicist Frank Znidarsic has been investigating new sources of energy for twenty years following the trail of cold fusion and antigravity research. He finally came up with a startling new theory of quantum reality that relates all the natural forces including gravity [1-3], but has yet to publish in a mainstream journal, though there is a peer reviewed paper accepted for publication [3], co-authored with Glen Robertson of NASA Marshall Laboratory. At Znidarsic’s request [4], I looked into his theory and became sufficiently convinced to write about it. The unification of all forces – ‘a theory of
everything’ or ToE - a project started by Albert
Einstein and taken up by many after him, has become the
holy grail of theoretical physics. Although the
unification of weak electromagnetic and strong nuclear
forces has been achieved, gravity remains beyond the pale
of existing physical laws. If Znidarsic is right, his
theory (which I shall call the Z Theory) may well lead to
an understanding of the range and the strength of the
force fields and can also provide an explanation for
Planck’s constant, the fine structure constant, the
Bohr atom, the quantum jump, and the
intensity of atomic emission spectra, etc., a long
list of unsolved mysteries, or mysteries accepted to have
no explanations by the scientific community.
The Z Theory is simple and intuitive once the basic
physics and engineering concepts are explained, thanks to
enthusiastic fellow physicist Lane Davis [12], who has
created an excellent series of more than 20 videos posted
on YouTube [13]. Davis takes you from high school
electromagnetism and practical everyday engineering
through highly controversial cold fusion and anti-gravity
research to the elementary algebra that encapsulates the
Z theory, proving how all the fundamental constants are
reduced to just one, the velocity of sound in the atomic
nucleus of about 1 million metres per second, 1.093846 x
10 The series is narrated by Davis himself, illustrated throughout with examples from games and sports, and peppered with irrelevant, irreverent, and sometimes comic relief from the maths. And for a grand finale, the ‘master’ equation is presented in rap. Wish I had a physics teacher like that when I was young. ## A rare talent for translating between physical intuition and mathematicsZnidarsic’s strength is his ability to translate effortlessly between abstruse theoretical/ mathematical concepts and physical intuitions of mechanical and electrical interactions; a rare talent in danger of being snuffed out altogether by an education system that separates scientists from engineers, the theoretical and academic from the practical and technical. Znidarsic’s journey began by visiting laboratories engaged in unusual research shunned and denigrated by the mainstream academic community: cold (nuclear) fusion in electrolytic cells and gravity modification with spinning magnetic fields. The velocity of about 1 million metres per second kept turning up in both types of experiments. The common ingredients are electromagnetic interactions in condensed matter, leading to nuclear fusion in one setting, and in the other, antigravity effects. Znidarsic decided that the velocity of 1 million metres per second is that of ‘sound’ within the nucleus, and from then on, it was plain sailing as he homed in on the Z theory. ## The velocity of sound in the nucleus and impedance matchingThe velocity of 1.094 million metres per second is the
lynchpin of the Z theory. The quantum transition (quantum
jump), which so mystified and frustrated Einstein and
many great quantum physicists, is the result of a
classical impedance match – a match that allows
energy to flow directly without resistance within the
atomic structure - At the same time, momentum – the quantity of
motion, or impetus - is carried by the It is this increase in the magnetic component of the strong nuclear force that makes nuclear fusion possible – without the need for thermonuclear temperatures – and sometimes results in the appearance of local gravitational anomaly. That is the gist of the theory, which I shall explain in more detail, starting with a brief look backwards at conventional quantum mechanics. ## Potted history of quantum mechanicsPhysicist Max Planck in Germany initiated the present
era of quantum physics by introducing the idea at the
beginning of the past century that light (and the entire
electromagnetic spectrum) comes in tiny packets or
The proportionality constant Danish physicist Niels Bohr applied Planck’s constant to the structure of the atom in a model with electrons orbiting the nucleus rather like planets orbiting around the sun in our solar system. Bohr’s model of the atom is quantized, i.e., it has electrons orbiting the nucleus at different energy levels in multiples of Planck’s constant. It explained the emission spectrum of the atoms in terms of quantum transitions from higher to lower energy orbits, and accounted for the chemical properties of the elements. However, according to classical electromagnetic theory due to Scottish physicist and mathematician James Clerk Maxwell, orbiting electrons are accelerating all the time and should continuously emit electromagnetic energy, and hence soon fall into the nucleus. Bohr’s model could not explain the stability of the atom, nor can it produce the probability of quantum transitions from one energy level to another, among other things. French physicist Louis deBroglie offered the solution. He proposed that the electron has wave-like properties. The electron does not circulate in orbits around the nucleus. Instead, it encircles the nucleus in the form of a standing wave, and a particle-like photon is emitted as these standing waves instantaneously collapse during a quantum transition. This wave-particle duality of light and matter is a paradox in quantum physics, for which there is no explanation. The widely accepted ‘Copenhagen interpretation’ proposed by German-born physicist and mathematician Max Born tries to get around those difficulties by saying that deBroglie’s matter waves are just a mathematical construct and not real. Einstein rejected the Copenhagen interpretation and believed to his dying day that the theory of quantum mechanics is not complete. It is against such a backdrop that Znidarsic’s theory emerged, thanks to new observations rejected by the establishment on ground that they cannot be explained within conventional physics, quantum or classical. Instead of questioning conventional physics, the establishment closed its collective mind and locked out the true scientists who welcome new challenges, and would sacrifice almost anything in pursuit of beauty and truth (see [14] Beauty and Truth in Science and Art, ISIS publication). ## What cold fusion and antigravity experiments told ZnidarsicWe have reviewed cold fusion experiments extensively
beginning four years ago, and most recently in connection
with its possible commercialisation [15] (Cold
Fusion Ready for Commercial Production? I am convinced that cold fusion works, and in many
different forms, all dependent on the collective quantum
properties of condensed matter that conventional quantum
mechanics has yet to take into proper account. There are
already several theories that explains cold fusion in
terms of collective quantum properties (or quantum
coherence) [16] (How
Cold Fusion Works, Znidarsic noticed that cold fusion reactions proceed
in a (coherent) domain of 50-100 nanometres on being
excited with energy input in the range of about 10 The gravity experiments of Russian-born Eugene
Podkletnov, which inspired Znidarsic, were originally
carried out at Tempere University of Technology in
Finland, until Podkletnov was dismissed from the
University when a journalist reported his work as ‘antigravity’,
a term Podkletnov himself never used [17-19]. The best
results were obtained when a 3 megahertz AC magnetic
field was used to stimulate the 0.3 meter diameter
superconducting toroidal disk spinning in a levitated
state over the magnetic field [1]. (This levitation of
the superconducting disc itself has nothing to do with
gravity. It is relatively well understood as the effect
of the repulsive force generated by the superconducting
disc against the magnetic field [20]). A gravity anomaly
appeared above the disc, in the form of reduced
atmospheric pressure and reduced weight of up to 2
percent or more [17-19], that cannot be explained by the
usual diamagnetic interaction, as it depends solely on
mass, and not on the nature of the material itself. The
product of the disc size (the coherent domain as
wavelength of the electromagnetic field) and the
stimulation frequency once again, as in the case of cold
fusion, gives a velocity of about 1 million metres per
second, the same quantum transition velocity, Cold fusion and antigravity appear totally unrelated to the casual observer. But Znidarsic noted the connection via the velocity of ‘sound’ or phonons within the coherent domain of 50 nm in the cold fusion experiments and the much larger 0.3 m superconducting disc in the gravity modification experiments. The clue lies in the correlated electronic vibrations of the atoms within the coherence domain, which physicists call a ‘Bose Einstein condensate’ (BSC): all the atoms in that state act as one, and can be considered a single entity. With a combination of intuitive imagination and
analogies to mechanical vibrating system within the atom,
Znidarsic showed that the velocity
When the speed of light in the electronic structure of the atom equals the speed of sound in the nucleus, energy transfer can occur without loss at 100 percent efficiency. This is a condition similar to that of a billiard ball hitting directly another pool ball. All of the energy is transferred at once without bounce. A similar condition results in the emission of a single photon. Conversely, a ball bouncing off of the earth is an example of a non-impedance matched system. The earth does not move at the speed of the bouncing ball and the ball gives up energy in a series of progressivity smaller bounces. A series of progressively smaller photons are not emitted during a quantum jump and Znidarsic concluded that the process of quantum jumping is one of impedance matching. ## Slowing lightLight or electromagnetic radiation in vacuum has a
much higher velocity, c = 299,792,458 metres per second,
nearly 300 times as large as the velocity of sound in the
nucleus of atoms identified by Znidarsic. In order for
light in the electronic structure to match the velocity
sound in the nucleus, it must be slowed down nearly 300-fold.
Light does indeed propagate at reduced velocity through
dense media; the refraction of light in water is an
everyday example. In the laboratory, scientists have
managed to slow light down even to a standstill in a BSC
of atoms [21, 22] (see [23] Trapping
Light, In a similar way, the external stimulating electromagnetic fields are trapped and slowed down within the coherent domains in cold fusion and superconducting disc in the gravity modification experiments. And when the slowed electromagnetic velocity matches the velocity of sound within the nucleus, there is no longer any barrier to energy transfer, and cold fusion can proceed [16]. ## Amplification of magnetic fields by BEC and “zero point energy”The gravity modification experiments show that gravity is indeed tied up with electromagnetic forces in some mysterious ways, as has already been suggested by the work of other physicists, notably Robert Dicke, Bernard Haisch, and Harold Puthoff in the United States [24-29]. Dicke and Puthoff proposed that mass alters the electric permittivity and the magnetic permeability of spacetime [28]. Haisch and coworker Alfonso Rueda proposed that [29] “a background sea of quantum light” fills the universe and generates a force that opposes acceleration, which is why matter seems to be solid. So “maybe matter resists acceleration not because it possesses some innate thing called mass…but because the zero-point field exerts a force whenever acceleration takes place.” Znidaric suggests that the BEC in the superconducting disc somehow locally amplifies the magnetic components of the forces. An increased magnetic field is required to carry the same amount of energy at a lower velocity. The process is similar to that of a tsunami, as the tidal wave slows, its height piles up in an amount necessary to carry its energy. This increased gravitomagnteic field gives apparent
antigravity effects. In other words, the weak and strong
forces and gravity balance out via their amplified
magnetic components. Znidarsic emphasizes that this does
not violate any law of conservation, as it is known that
magnetic, as well as electric permittivity can be
modified locally. The BEC therefore, acts like a soft
iron core, only much more so, as the magnetic component
of mass (gravitomagnetic force) is only 10 When asked how that amplification could be achieved, Znidarsic says he does not exactly know, but suspects it involves an increase in the magnetic component of the fields that compensates for the reduced velocity of the fields; “just as water flows in a river bed through a valley electrons transit between states through channels of matching impedance.” Could this be the “zero-point energy” that has been the holy grail of Haisch and Puthoff and their followers, including Podkletnov and Znidaric , who see space-propulsion systems that can travel at 6 times the speed of light, as Podkeltnov claims for his latest, as yet unpublished experiments on gravity pulses [19]? I leave these tantalizing questions hanging, while I go on to more immediate important things. ## Planck’s constant and Bohr atom revisited
In essence, the energy of the photon is given by
Equation (2) where Q is the elementary charge, and (2) The terms within the brackets [ ] equals Planck’s
constant, and Equation (2) thereby reproduces Einstein’s
famous photoelectric relation in Equation (1). Planck’s
constant is shown to be a simple function of the
elementary charge and the quantum transition velocity Similarly, the principle radii of the hydrogen atom (3) The expression within the brackets [ ] equals the ground state radius of the hydrogen atom, and the equation also determines the principle energy levels of the hydrogen atom. Finally, the probability of quantum transition is
shown to be the square of the intensity of the spectral
line, which is just the amplitude of electronic harmonic
motion at transition, (4) ## The fine-structure constant explainedThe fine-structure constant, a
, is a fundamental physical constant or coupling constant
characterizing the strength of the electromagnetic
interaction introduced by theoretical German physicist
Arnold Sommerfeld in 1916, who found that it determined
the splitting or fine-structure of the hydrogen spectral
lines. Its current value is 7.2973525698 x 10
Znidarsic found a simple expression for the fine structure constant given in Equation (6).
As the ratio of two velocities, ## “Quantum mechanics a special case of Newtonian mechanics”Znidarsic has derived quantum mechanics from classical
Newtonian mechanics, thereby showing that “quantum
mechanics is a special case of Newtonian mechanics”,
rather than the other way round. This is an enormous
claim, and not likely to be easily accepted by the
physics establishment. The ball is now in their court, to
show how and if Znidarsic is mistaken. ## How to Control Gravity and Nuclear Forces
Uploaded by AlienScientist on 25 Jan 2010 With the looming energy crisis,
we need to start looking at alternatives. I believe that
if Cold Fusion got 1/10th the funding that the LHC or Hot
Fusion or Top Secret Defense Contracts get we would have
Cold Fusion by now. |